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Sanitarium Mariculture: Protection of Marine Ecosystems from the Pollution

Victor V. Ivin mail.gif (100 bytes) and Sergey I. Maslennikov mail.gif (100 bytes)

Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences

Human activity at Sea of Japan coasts nowadays extends. Because of this activity, the exploitation of coastal waters grows. This activity negatively influences on seawaters and their organisms. The pollution worsens conditions for sea organisms reproduction, reduces efficiency and biodiversity of sea ecosystems. Because of pollution in coastal waters, the concentration of dangerous microorganisms grows.

We offer to use sanitary mariculture for indemnification of these infringements. In the polluted regions, it is necessary to create a barrier from distribution of pollution. The cultivation of sea organisms on maricultural structures in the polluted waters is a real way of sea environment purification. Such clearing reduces pollution and excludes occurrence of ecological crises. With the using of sanitary mariculture, it is possible to withdraw a significant part of polluting substances from seawater. Organisms, which used for clearing water area, should withdrawn from maricultural farms. The creation of artificial spawning-ground and collectors for sea organisms settle should be create conditions for ecosystem restoration in the polluted zones.
Sanitary mariculture allows:

  • reducing the area of the polluted water area.
  • preventing distribution of dirty waters.
  • creating conditions for restoration of natural environment in the polluted zones.
  • supporting a biodiversity in areas, these are under antropogeneous pressure.

The basis of biological clearing of waters is ability of sea organisms to accumulate some chemical substances. We offer such pattern of cultivation: seaweed + suspension feeders + deposit feeders. The seaweed allocates oxygen. Suspension feeders can purify seawater and allocate substances for seaweed feeding. Deposit feeders process mud ground deposits and protecting them from turbidity. Joint cultivation of suspension and deposit feeders' promotes restoration of structure of microorganism' community and support of ecological balance. With cultivation of seaweed with mollusks and echinoderms in polyculture will allow reducing:

  • sea water eutrophication
  • probability of occurrence harmful blooms and red tides
  • concentration of dangerous microorganisms, heavy metals and organic toxin

In addition, on maricultural farms it is possible to receive seed of such organisms as Ezo scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis, Japanese kelp Laminaria japonica and Common sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

One hectare of farms can give up to 150 tons of kelp that removes 30 tons of organic substance. One hectare of laminarian farm falls out 25.5 100 kg per day of the suspended substance. During one month, it makes 765 3000 kg. The concentration of organic carbon in suspended substance makes from 10 up to 15 %. During summer - autumn period one hectare of plantations can remove to 18 tons of the suspended substance. During a year, one hectare of plantations can remove about 100 tons of organic substance as crude biomass and about 36 tons of the suspended substance from seawater.

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